The reduction of biological and biochemical processes at low temperatures can generate a possibility for the long-term preservation of cells and tissues. However, ice crystals cause freezing death penalty for almost all living cells. Water-to-ice transition is the critical phase for cells counteracting low temperatures. In cryopreservation process, presence of a Cryoprotective Agent (CPA) affects the rate of water transport, nucleation, and crystallization in a way that leads to the maintenance of the cell structure and bringing the biological sample in a suspended animation status at cryogenic temperature for any considerable period of time.
The cryopreservation media containing CPA is one of the critical components of a fruitful cryopreservation. Depending on the cryopreservation procedure and targeted tissue/cells media can differ.